Several Vaio models sport an integrated fingerprint reader.
If your reader is on the list of supported devices of the FPrint project (like the 147e:2016 reader), you can enjoy a full integration of fingerprint authentication into GNOME. You can get Debian packages (suitable also for Ubuntu and other derived distros) from FPrint package repository. On recent Fedora, this works out of the box.
Other fingerprint readers used by Sony are usually manufactured by UPEK (such as 0483:2016 or 147e:1000, essentially all whose Vendor ID is 0483 or 147e), and you can integrate them into your desktop with Fingerprint GUI (you will need to install the bundled proprietary library as well). Debian packages for Fingerprint GUI (also suitable for Ubuntu) can be found in the Fingerprint GUI package repository.